Detergents, chemically known as alfa olefin sulphonates (AOS) are used as fabric brightening agent, anti-deposition agent, stain remover and as a bleacher. A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with “cleaning properties in dilute solutions”. The sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids are soaps while salts of long chain sulphonic acids are detergents, this compound have hydrophobic and hydrophilic nature. The detergent includes from about 5% to about 80% of an inorganic carrier, from about 1% to about 90% of a detergent surfactant, from about 0.1% up to about 15% of an acidulant which is selected from the group of acids and from about 0.1% up to about 30% of the discrete whitening agent particle
Detergents are either derived from petrochemicals, vegetable oils or animal fat. Builders, enzymes, antioxidants, fabric softeners, antimicrobial agents etc. are the compounds added with detergents to enhance the property.
Detergents are also known as Synthetic Detergents. They are different from oil-based soap though both soaps and detergents are surfactants. Their important application is cleaning. Because of a number of advantages Detergents are popular than soaps and its demand is always there if the product possesses both quality and price effectiveness. There are a number of varieties of detergents varying in percentages of active matter present in them and also different colors. Manufacturing process is very simple and only mixing is involved. Hence, this product is best suited for manufacturing in small-scale sector.
■ Single shift of eight hours a day, 25 days a month and 300 days in a year is presumed. Efficient Machines and workers are also presumed.
■ Minimum six months’ period is considered for achieving full capacity utilization.
■ Labor rates are as per the prevailing rates.
■ An average interest rate of 18% is considered.
■ The estimates are drawn for a production capacity generally considered techno-economically viable for model type of manufacturing activity.
■ The information supplied is based on a standard type of manufacturing activity viable for model type of manufacturing activity.
■ The information supplied is based on a standard type of manufacturing activity utilizing conventional techniques of production at optimum levels of performance.
Normally six months are required for the complete implementation of the project, including machinery erection, raw materials procurement etc.
There are two methods for the manufacture of Detergent powder, viz. Spray dried detergent powder and just mixing of Detergent Powder, raw materials etc. Spray drying involves a lot of investment and hence the other simple mixing method is adopted by a number of small units. In this project, simple mixing method is followed.
Acid slurry is first neutralized with soda ash and mixture is kept for one hour for completion of reaction. Other ingredients such as STEP, TSP, Glauber’s salt, CMC, Colors, Perfume etc. are then blended to the neutralized acid slurry with continuous mixing. The mixture is then dried, slaved and packed in suitable pickings.
■ IS: 4955-1968: Specification for Synthetic Detergents for household use.
■ Power Requirement: 2 HP